Martin A. Nowak

Selected Publications

All Publications:

1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014


  1. Nowak M, P Schuster (1989). Error thresholds of replication in finite populations. Mutation frequencies and the onset of Muller's ratchet. J theor Biol 137 (4): 375-395. PDF
  2. Nowak M, K Sigmund (1989). Game-dynamical aspects of the prisoner's dilemma. Appl Math Comp 30 (3): 191-213. PDF
  3. Nowak M, K Sigmund (1989). Oscillations in the evolution of reciprocity. J theor Biol 137 (1): 21-26. PDF
  4. 1990

  5. Nowak M (1990). An evolutionarily stable strategy may be inaccessible. J theor Biol 142 (2): 237-241. PDF
  6. Nowak M (1990). HIV mutation rate. Nature 347 (6293): 522. PDF
  7. Nowak M (1990). Stochastic strategies in the prisoner's dilemma. Theor Popul Biol 38 (1): 93-112. PDF
  8. Nowak MA, RM May, RM Anderson (1990). The evolutionary dynamics of HIV quasispecies and the development of immunodeficiency disease. AIDS 4 (11): 1095-1103. PDF
  9. Nowak M, K Sigmund (1990). The evolution of stochastic strategies in the prisoner's dilemma. Acta Appl Math 20 (3): 247-265. PDF
  10. 1991

  11. Kwiatkowski D, M Nowak (1991). Periodic and chaotic host-parasite interactions in human malaria. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88 (12): 5111-5113. PDF
  12. Magurran AE, MA Nowak (1991). Another battle of the sexes: The consequences of sexual asymmetry in mating costs and predation risk in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. Proc R Soc B 246 (1315): 31-38. PDF
  13. Nowak M (1991). The evolution of viruses. Competition between horizontal and vertical transmission of mobile genes. J theor Biol 150 (3): 339-347. PDF
  14. Nowak MA, RM Anderson, A R McLean, T Wolfs, J Goudsmit, RM May (1991). Antigenic diversity thresholds and the development of AIDS. Science 254: 963-369. PDF
  15. Nowak MA, RM May (1991). Mathematical biology of HIV infections: antigenic variation and diversity threshold. Math Biosci 106: 1-21. PDF
  16. Nowak MA, AR McLean (1991). A mathematical model of vaccination against HIV to prevent development of AIDS. Proc R Soc B 246: 141-146. PDF
  17. 1992

  18. McLean AR, MA Nowak (1992). Competition between zidovudine sensitive and resistant strains of HIV. AIDS 6: 71-79. PDF
  19. McLean AR, MA Nowak (1992). Models of interactions between HIV and other pathogens. J theor Biol 155: 69-86. PDF
  20. Nowak MA (1992). Variability in HIV infections. J theor Biol 155: 1-20. PDF
  21. Nowak MA (1992). What is a quasispecies? Trends Ecol Evol 7: 118-121. PDF
  22. Nowak MA, RM May (1992). Coexistence and competition in HIV infections. J theor Biol 159: 329-342. PDF
  23. Nowak MA, RM May (1992). Evolutionary games and spatial chaos. Nature 359: 826-829. PDF
  24. Nowak MA , K Sigmund (1992). Tit for tat in heterogeneous populations. Nature 355: 250-253. PDF
  25. Nowak MA, K Tarczy-Hornoch, JM Austyn (1992). The optimal number of major histocompatibility complex molecules in an individual. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89: 10896-10899. PDF
  26. Payne RJH, MA Nowak, BS Blumberg (1992). Analysis of a cellular model to account for the natural history of infection by the hepatitis B virus and its role in the development of primary hepatocellular carcinoma. J theor Biol 159: 215-240. PDF
  27. Sheratt JA, MA Nowak (1992). Oncogenes, anti-oncogenes and the immune response to cancer: A mathematical model. Proc R Soc B 248: 261-271. PDF
  28. 1993

  29. Nowak MA, RM May (1993). AIDS pathogenesis: Mathematical models of HIV and SIV infections. AIDS 7: S3-S18. PDF
  30. Nowak MA, RM May (1993). The spatial dilemmas of evolution. Int J Bifurcat Chaos 3: 35-78. PDF
  31. Nowak MA, AR McLean (1993). Mathematical models for the pathogenesis of AIDS. In Mathematics Applied to Biology and Medicine, eds. J Demongeot, V Capasso. Winnepeg: Wuerz, 275-284.
  32. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (1993). A strategy of win-stay, lose-shift that outperforms tit-for-tat in Prisoner's Dilemma. Nature 364: 56-58. PDF
  33. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (1993). Chaos and the evolution of cooperation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90: 5091-5094. PDF
  34. 1994

  35. Berry RM, MA Nowak (1994). Defective escape mutants of HIV. J theor Biol 171: 387-395. PDF
  36. Bonhoeffer S, MA Nowak (1994). Intra-host versus inter-host selection: Viral strategies of immune function impairment. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91: 8062-8066. PDF
  37. Bonhoeffer S, MA Nowak (1994). Mutation and the evolution of virulence. Proc R Soc B 258: 133-140. PDF
  38. May RM, MA Nowak (1994). Superinfection, metapopulation dynamics, and the evolution of diversity. J theor Biol 170: 95-114. PDF
  39. Moxon ER, PB Rainey, MA Nowak, RE Lenski (1994). Adaptive evolution of highly mutable loci in pathogenic bacteria. Curr Biol 4: 24-33. PDF
  40. Nowak MA (1994). The evolutionary dynamics of HIV infections. In First European Congress of Mathematics, Vol II, eds. A Joseph, F Mignot, F Murat, B Prum, R Rentschler. Basel: Birkhauser, 311-326.
  41. Nowak MA, S Bonhoeffer, RM May (1994). More spatial games. Int J Bifurcat Chaos 4: 33-56. PDF
  42. Nowak MA, S Bonhoeffer, RM May (1994). Spatial games and the maintenance of cooperation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91: 4877-4881. PDF
  43. Nowak MA, RM May (1994). Superinfection and the evolution of parasite virulence. Proc R Soc B 255: 81-89. PDF
  44. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (1994). The alternating prisoner's dilemma. J theor Biol 168: 219-226. PDF
  45. Payne RJH, MA Nowak, BS Blumberg (1994). A cellular model to explain the pathogenesis of infection by the hepatitis B virus. Math Biosci 123: 25-58. PDF
  46. Tilman D, RM May, CL Lehman, MA Nowak (1994). Habitat destruction and the extinction debt. Nature 371: 65-66. PDF
  47. 1995

  48. Bonhoeffer S, EC Holmes, MA Nowak (1995). Causes of HIV diversity. Nature 376: 125. PDF
  49. Bonhoeffer S, EC Holmes, MA Nowak (1995). Varying selection pressure in HIV-1 infection. J Acq Immun Def Synd 10: 85.
  50. Bonhoeffer S, MA Nowak (1995). Can live attenuated virus work as post-exposure treatment? Immunol Today 16: 131-135. PDF
  51. Lipsitch M, EA Herre, MA Nowak (1995). Host population structure and the evolution of virulence: A "law of diminishing returns". Evolution 49: 743-748. PDF
  52. Lipsitch M, MA Nowak (1995). The evolution of virulence in sexually transmitted HIV/AIDS. J theor Biol 174: 427-440. PDF
  53. Lipsitch M, MA Nowak, D Ebert, RM May (1995). The population dynamics of vertically and horizontally transmitted parasites. Proc R Soc B 260: 321-327. PDF
  54. May RM, S Bonhoeffer, MA Nowak (1995). Spatial games and evolution of cooperation. In Advances in Artificial Life, eds. F Moran, A Moreno, J J Merelo, P Chacon. Berlin: Springer, 749-759.
  55. May RM, MA Nowak (1995). Coinfection and the evolution of parasite virulence. Proc R Soc B 261: 209-215. PDF
  56. McMichael AJ, S Rowland-Jones, P Klenerman, et al (1995). Epitope variation and T-cell recognition. J Cell Biochem Suppl S21A: 60.
  57. Nowak MA (1995). AIDS pathogenesis: From models to viral dynamics in patients. J Acq Immun Def Syn 10: S1-S5. PDF
  58. Nowak M (1995). Evolutionary dynamics of HIV infections. In Models for Infectious Human Diseases, eds.V Isham, G Medley. Cambridge University Press.
  59. Nowak MA, S Bonhoeffer, C Loveday, P Balfe, M Semple, S Kaye, M Tenant-Flowers, R Tedder (1995). HIV results in the frame: Results confirmed. Nature 375: 193. PDF
  60. Nowak MA, RM May, RE Phillips, S Rowland-Jones, DG Lalloo, S McAdam, P Klenerman, B Köppe, K Sigmund, CRM Bangham, AJ McMichael (1995). Antigenic oscillations and shifting immunodominance in HIV-1 infections. Nature 375: 606-611. PDF
  61. Nowak MA, RM May, K Sigmund (1995). Immune responses against multiple epitopes. J theor Biol 175: 325-353. PDF
  62. Nowak MA, RM May, K Sigmund (1995). The arithmetics of mutual help. Sci Am 272: 76-81. PDF
  63. Nowak MA, AJ McMichael (1995). How HIV defeats the immune system. Sci Am 273: 58-65. PDF
  64. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (1995). Invasion dynamics of the finitely repeated prisoner's dilemma. Game Econ Behav 11: 364-390. PDF
  65. Nowak M, K Sigmund, E El-Sedy (1995). Automata, repeated games and noise. J Math Biol 33: 703-722. PDF
  66. Wei X, SK Ghosh, ME Taylor, VA Johnson, EA Emini, P Deutsch, JD Lifson, S Bonhoeffer, MA Nowak, BH Hahn, MS Saag, GM Shaw (1995). Viral dynamics in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Nature 373: 117-122. PDF
  67. 1996

  68. Antia R, MA Nowak, RM Anderson (1996). Antigenic variation and the within-host dynamics of parasites. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93: 985-989. PDF
  69. Boerlijst MC, S Bonhoeffer, MA Nowak (1996). Viral quasi-species and recombination. Proc R Soc B 263: 1577-1584. PDF
  70. Bonhoeffer S, AVM Herz, MC Boerlijst, S Nee, MA Nowak, RM May (1996). Explaining "linguistic features" of noncoding DNA. Science 271: 14-15. PDF
  71. Bonhoeffer S, AVM Herz, MC Boerlijst, MA Nowak, RM May (1996). No signs of hidden language in noncoding DNA. Phys Rev Lett 76: 1977. PDF
  72. Herz AVM, S Bonhoeffer, RM Anderson, RM May, MA Nowak (1996). Viral dynamics in vivo: Limitations on estimates of intracellular delay and virus decay. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93: 7247-7251. PDF
  73. Klenerman P, RE Phillips, CR Rinaldo, LM Wahl, RM May, AJ McMichael, MA Nowak (1996). Cytotoxic T lymphocytes and viral turnover in HIV type 1 infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93: 15323-15328. PDF
  74. Lipsitch M, S Siller, MA Nowak (1996). The evolution of virulence in pathogens with vertical and horizontal transmission. Evolution 50: 1729-1741. PDF
  75. McMichael AJ, P Goulder, S Rowland-Jones, MA Nowak, R Philips (1996). HIV escapes from cytotoxic lymphocytes. Immunology 89: 111. PDF
  76. Nowak MA (1996). Immune responses against multiple epitopes: A theory for immunodominance and antigenic variation. Semin Virol 7: 83-92. PDF
  77. Nowak MA, RM Anderson, MC Boerlijst, S Bonhoeffer, RM May, AJ McMichael (1996). HIV-1 evolution and disease progression. Science 274: 1008-1011. PDF
  78. Nowak MA, CRM Bangham (1996). Population dynamics of immune responses to persistent viruses. Science 272: 74-79. PDF
  79. Nowak MA, S Bonhoeffer, AM Hill, R Boehme, HC Thomas, H McDade (1996). Viral dynamics in hepatitis B virus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93: 4398-4402. PDF
  80. Nowak MA, S Bonhoeffer, RM May (1996). Reply to Robustness of cooperation, A Mukherji, V Rajan, J Slagle. Nature 379: 126. PDF
  81. Payne RJH, MA Nowak, B Blumberg (1996). The dynamics of hepatitis B virus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93: 6542-6546. PDF
  82. Stekel DJ, MA Nowak, TRE Southwood (1996). Prediction of future BSE spread. Nature 381: 119. PDF
  83. Tilman D, C Lehman, R May, M Nowak (1996). Reply to Species fragmentation or area loss? S Budiansky. Nature 382: 216. PDF
  84. 1997

  85. Bittner B, S Bonhoeffer, MA Nowak (1997). Virus load and antigenic diversity. B Math Biol 59: 881-896. PDF
  86. Boerlijst MC, MA Nowak, K Sigmund (1997). Equal pay for all prisoners. Am Math Mon 104: 303-305. PDF
  87. Boerlijst MC, MA Nowak, K Sigmund (1997). The logic of contrition. J theor Biol 185: 281-293. PDF
  88. Bonhoeffer S, J Coffin, MA Nowak (1997). Human immunodeficiency virus drug therapy and virus load. J Virol 71(4): 3275-3278. PDF
  89. Bonhoeffer S, RM May, GM Shaw, MA Nowak (1997). Virus dynamics and drug therapy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 6971-6976. PDF
  90. Bonhoeffer S, MA Nowak (1997). Pre-existence and emergence of drug resistance in HIV-1 infection. Proc R Soc B 264: 631-637. PDF
  91. Chun T-W, Stuyver L, Mizell S B, Ehler L A, Mican J A M, Baseler M, Lloyd A L, Nowak M A, Fauci A S (1997). Presence of an inducible HIV-1 latent reservoir during highly active antiretroviral therapy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 13193-13197. PDF
  92. Cooke J, MA Nowak, MC Boerlijst, J Maynard Smith (1997). Evolutionary origins and maintenance of redundant gene expression during metazoan development. Trends Genet 13: 360-364. PDF
  93. Goulder PJR, RE Phillips, RA Colbert, S McAdam, G Ogg, MA Nowak, P Giangrande, G Luzzi, B Morgan, A Edwards, AJ McMichael, S Rowland-Jones (1997). Late escape from an immunodominant cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response associated with progression to AIDS. Nat Med 3: 212-217. PDF
  94. Goulder P, D Price, M Nowak, S Rowland-Jones, R Phillips, and A McMichael (1997). Co-evolution of human immunodeficiency virus and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses. Immunol Rev 159: 17-29. PDF
  95. Lifson JD, MA Nowak, S Goldstein, JL Rossio, A Kinter, G Vasquez, TA Wiltrout, C Brown, D Schneider, L Wahl, AL Lloyd, J Williams, WR Elkins, AS Fauci, VM Hirsch (1997). The extent of early viral replication is a critical determinant of the natural history of simian immunodeficiency virus infection. J Virol 71: 9508-9514. PDF
  96. May RM, DJ Stekel, MA Nowak (1997). Antigenic diversity thresholds and hazard functions. Math Biosci 139: 59-68. PDF
  97. Nowak MA, MC Boerlijst, J Cooke, J Maynard Smith (1997). Evolution of genetic redundancy. Nature 388: 167-171. PDF
  98. Nowak MA, S Bonhoeffer, GM Shaw, RM May (1997). Anti-viral drug treatment: Dynamics of resistance in free virus and infected cell populations. J theor Biol 184: 203-217. PDF
  99. Nowak MA, AL Lloyd, G Vasquez, TA Wiltrout, LM Wahl, N Bischofsberger, J Williams, A Kinter, AS Fauci, VM Hirsch, JD Lifson (1997). Viral dynamics of primary viremia and antiretroviral therapy in simian immunodeficiency virus infection. J Virol 71: 7518-7525. PDF
  100. Sigmund K, MA Nowak (1997). The natural history of mutual aid: An eye for an eye, and a meal for a meal. In Wissenschaft als Kultur, ed. F Stadler. New York: Springer Verlag, 259-272.
  101. Stekel D, C Parker, MA Nowak (1997). A model of lymphocyte recirculation. Immunol Today 18: 216-221. PDF
  102. Wein LM, SA Zenios, MA Nowak (1997). Dynamic multidrug therapies for HIV: A control theoretic approach. J theor Biol 185: 15-29. PDF
  103. 1998

  104. Goh WC, ME Rogel, CM Kinsey, SF Michael, PN Fultz, MA Nowak, BH Hahn, M Emerman (1998). HIV-1 Vpr increases viral expression by manipulation of the cell cycle: A mechanism for selection of Vpr in vivo. Nat Med 4: 65-71. PDF
  105. Kilby JM, S Hopkins, T Venetta, B DiMassimo, GA Cloud, JY Lee, L Alldredge, E Hunter, D Lambert, D Bolognesi, T Matthews, L Carder, MR Johnson, MA Nowak, GM Shaw, MS Saag (1998). Potent suppression of HIV-1 replication in humans by T-20, a peptide inhibitor of gp-41 mediated virus entry. Nat Med 4: 1302-1307. PDF
  106. Levin BR, R Antia, E Berliner, P Bloland, S Bonhoeffer, M Cohen, T DeRouin, PI Fields, H Jafari, D Jernigan, M Lipsitch, JE McGowan, P Mead, M Nowak, T Porco, P Sykora, L Simmonsen, J Spitznagel, R Tauxe, F Tenover (1998). Resistance to antimicrobial chemotherapy: A prescription for research and action. Am J Med Sci 315: 87-94. PDF
  107. Nowak MA, DC Krakauer, A Klug, RM May (1998). Prion infection dynamics. Integr Biol 1: 3-15.<3::AID-INBI2>3.3.CO;2-0 PDF
  108. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (1998). Darwins dynamik. DMV-Mitteilungen 4: 37-44. PDF
  109. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (1998). Evolution of indirect reciprocity by image scoring. Nature 393: 573-577. PDF
  110. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (1998). The dynamics of indirect reciprocity. J theor Biol 194: 561-574. PDF
  111. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (1998). What two legs can learn from four legs. Book review of Foundations of Social Evolution, SA Frank; Cooperation Among Animals, AL Dugatkin. Nature 395: 760-761. PDF
  112. Ogg GS, X Jin, S Bonhoeffer, PR Dunbar, MA Nowak, S Monard, J Segal, Y Cao, SL Rowland-Jones, V Cerundolo, A Hurley, M Markowitz, DD Ho, DF Nixon, AJ McMichael (1998). Quantitation of HIV-1 specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes and plasma load of viral RNA. Science 279: 2103-2106. PDF
  113. Ostrowski MA, DC Krakauer, Y Li, SJ Justement, G Learn, LA Ehler, SK Stanley, MA Nowak, AS Fauci (1998). Effect of immune activation on the dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus replication and on the distribution of viral quasispecies. J Virol 72: 7772-7784. PDF
  114. Regoes RR, D Wodarz, MA Nowak (1998). Virus dynamics: The effect of target cell limitation and immune responses on virus evolution. J theor Biol 191: 451-462. PDF
  115. Ribeiro RM, S Bonhoeffer, MA Nowak (1998). The frequency of resistant mutant virus before antiviral therapy. AIDS 12: 461-465. PDF
  116. Sigmund K, M Boerlijst, MA Nowak (1998). Automata and inner states for repeated games. In Game Theory, Experience, Rationality, eds. W Leinfeller, E Koehler. London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 131-139.
  117. Sigmund K, MA Nowak (1998). Cyber-sociology. Book review of The Complexity of Cooperation: Agent-Based Models of Competition and Collaboration, R Axelrod. Nature 392: 457. PDF
  118. Wodarz D, P Klenerman, MA Nowak (1998). Dynamics of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte exhaustion. Proc R Soc B 265: 191-203 . PDF
  119. Wodarz D, MA Nowak (1998). Mathematical models of virus dynamics and resistance. J HIV Ther 3: 36-41. PDF
  120. Wodarz D, MA Nowak (1998). The effect of different immune responses on the evolution of virulent CXCR4-tropic HIV. Proc R Soc B 265: 2149-2158. PDF
  121. 1999

  122. Arnaout RA, AL Lloyd, TR O'Brien, JJ Goedert, JM Leonard, MA Nowak (1999). A simple relationship between viral load and survival time in HIV-1 infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96: 11549-11553. PDF
  123. Bangham CRM, SE Hall, KJM Jeffery, AM Vine, A Witkover, MA Nowak, D Wodarz, K Ususku, M Osame (1999). Genetic control and dynamics of the cellular immune response to the human T-cell leukaemia virus, HTLV-I. Phil Trans R Soc B 354: 691-700. PDF
  124. Callaway DS, RM Ribeiro, MA Nowak (1999). Virus phenotype switching and disease progression in HIV-1 infection. Proc R Soc B 266: 2523-2530. PDF
  125. Hockett RD, JM Kilby, CA Derdeyn, MS Saag, M Sillers, K Squires, S Chiz, MA Nowak, GM Shaw, RP Bucy (1999). Constant mean viral copy number per infected cell in tissues regardless of high, low, or undetectable plasma HIV RNA. J Exp Med 189: 1545-1554. PDF
  126. Jefferey KJM, K Usuku, SE Hall, W Matsumoto, GP Taylor, J Proctor, M Bunce, GS Ogg, KI Welsh, JN Weber, AL Lloyd, MA Nowak, M Nagai, D Kodama, S Izumo, M Osame, CRM Bangham (1999). HLA alleles determine human T-lymphotropic virus-I (HTLV-I) proviral load and the risk of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96: 3848-3853. PDF
  127. Krakauer DC, MA Nowak (1999). Evolutionary preservation of redundant duplicated genes. Semin Cell Dev Biol 10: 555-559. PDF
  128. Krakauer DC, MA Nowak (1999). T-cell induced pathogenesis in HIV: Bystander effects and latent infection. Proc R Soc B 266: 1069-1075. PDF
  129. Masel J, VAA Jansen, MA Nowak (1999). Quantifying the kinetic parameters of prion replication. Biophys Chem 77: 139-152. PDF
  130. Nowak MA (1999). The mathematical biology of human infections. Conserv Ecol 3: 12. (online version)
  131. Nowak MA, DC Krakauer (1999). The evolution of language. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96: 8028-8033. PDF
  132. Nowak MA, DC Krakauer, A Dress (1999). An error limit for the evolution of language. Proc R Soc B 266: 2131-2136. PDF
  133. Nowak MA, J Plotkin, D Krakauer (1999). The evolutionary language game. J theor Biol 200: 147-162. PDF
  134. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (1999). Aux racines de la coopération. Recherche 325: 38-39. PDF
  135. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (1999). Phage-lift for game theory. Nature 398: 367-368. PDF
  136. Ogg GS, X Jin, S Bonhoeffer, P Moss, MA Nowak, S Monard, JP Segal, Y Cao, SL Rowland-Jones, A Hurley, M Markowitz, DD Ho, AJ McMichael, DF Nixon (1999). Decay kinetics of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-specific effector cytotoxic T lymphocytes after combination antiretroviral therapy. J Virol 73: 797-800. PDF
  137. Sigmund K, MA Nowak (1999). Evolutionary game theory. Curr Biol 9: R503-R505. PDF
  138. Taylor GP, SE Hall, S Navarette, CA Michie, R Davis, AD Witkover, M Rossor, MA Nowak, P Rudge, E Matutes, CRM Bangham, JN Weber (1999). Effect of lamivudine on human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)  DNA copy number, T-cell phenotype, and anti-Tax cytotoxic T-cell frequency in patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy. J Virol 73: 10289-10295. PDF
  139. Wahl LM, MA Nowak (1999). The continuous prisoner's dilemma: I. Linear reactive strategies. J theor Biol 200: 307-321. PDF
  140. Wahl LM, MA Nowak (1999). The continuous prisoner's dilemma: II. Linear reactive strategies with noise. J theor Biol 200: 323-338. PDF
  141. Wodarz D, AL Lloyd, VAA Jansen, MA Nowak (1999). Dynamics of macrophage and T cell infection by HIV. J theor Biol 196: 101-113. PDF
  142. Wodarz D, MA Nowak (1999). Dynamics of HIV pathogenesis and treatment. In Origin and Evolution of Viruses, eds. E Domingo, R Webster, J Holland. London: Academic Press, 197-223.
  143. Wodarz D, MA Nowak (1999). Dynamics of immune escape in HIV infection. Wien Klin Wochenschr 111: 419-427. PDF
  144. Wodarz D, MA Nowak (1999). Evolutionary dynamics of HIV-1 induced subversion of the immune response. Immunol Rev 168: 75-89. PDF
  145. Wodarz D, MA Nowak (1999). Specific therapy regimes could lead to long-term immunological control of HIV. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96: 14464-14469. PDF
  146. Wodarz D, MA Nowak, CRM Bangham (1999). The dynamics of HTLV-I and the CTL response. Immunol Today 20: 220-227. PDF
  147. 2000

  148. Arnaout R, MA Nowak (2000). Competitive coexistence in antiviral immunity. J theor Biol 204: 431-441. PDF
  149. Arnaout R, MA Nowak, D Wodarz (2000). HIV-1 dynamics revisited: Biphasic decay by cytotoxic T lymphocyte killing? Proc R Soc B 267: 1347-1354. PDF
  150. Barchet W, S Oehen, P Klenerman, D Wodarz, GA Bocharov, AL Lloyd, MA Nowak, H Hengartner, RM Zinkernagel, S Ehl (2000). Direct quantitation of rapid elimination of viral antigen-positive lymphocytes by antiviral CD8+ T cells in vivo. Eur J Immunol 30: 1356-1363. PDF
  151. Krakauer DC, MA Nowak (2000). Book review of Fragile Dominion: Complexity and the Commons, S Levin. Not Am Math Soc 47: 564-568. PDF
  152. Lifson JD, JL Rossio, R Arnaout, L Li, TL Parks, DM Schneider, RF Kiser, VJ Coalter, G Walsh,RJ Imming, B Fisher, BM Flynn, N Bischofsberger, M Piatak, VM Hirsch, MA Nowak, D Wodarz D (2000). Containment of simian immunodeficiency virus infection: Cellular immune responses and protection from rechallenge following transient post-inoculation antiretroviral treatment. J Virol 74: 2584-2593. PDF
  153. Nowak MA (2000). Evolutionary biology of language. Phil Trans R Soc B 355: 1615-1622. PDF
  154. Nowak MA (2000). Homo grammaticus. Nat Hist 109: 36-44. PDF
  155. Nowak MA (2000). The basic reproductive ratio of a word, the maximum size of a lexicon. J theor Biol 204: 179-189. PDF
  156. Nowak MA, RM May (2000). Virus Dynamics. Oxford University Press. ISBN: 9780198504177.
  157. Nowak MA, KM Page, K Sigmund (2000). Fairness versus reason in the ultimatum game. Science 289: 1773-1775. PDF
  158. Nowak MA, JB Plotkin, VAA Jansen (2000). The evolution of syntactic communication. Nature 404: 495-498. PDF
  159. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (2000). Cooperation versus competition. Financ Anal J 56: 13-22. PDF
  160. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (2000). Games on grids. In The Geometry of Ecological Interactions, eds. U Dieckmann, R Law, JAJ Metz. Cambridge University Press, 135-150. PDF
  161. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (2000). Shrewd investments. Science 288 (5467): 819-820. PDF
  162. Page KM, MA Nowak (2000). A generalized adaptive dynamics framework can explain the evolutionary ultimatum game. J theor Biol 209: 173-179. PDF
  163. Page KM, MA Nowak, K Sigmund (2000). The spatial ultimatum game. Proc R Soc B 267: 2177-2182." PDF
  164. Plotkin JB, MA Nowak (2000). Language evolution and information theory. J theor Biol 205: 147-159. PDF
  165. Plotkin JB, MD Potts, DW Yu, S Bunyavejchewin, R Condit, R Foster, S Hubbell, J LaFrankie, N Manokaran, L Hua Seng, R Sukumar, MA Nowak, PS Ashton (2000). Predicting species diversity in tropical forests. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97: 10850-10854. http:// 10.1073/pnas.97.20.10850 PDF
  166. Regoes RR, MA Nowak, S Bonhoeffer (2000). Evolution of virulence in a heterogeneous host population. Evolution 54: 64-71.[0064:EOVIAH]2.0.CO;2 PDF
  167. Sigmund K, MA Nowak (2000). A tale of two selves. Science 290: 949-950. PDF
  168. Sigmund K, MA Nowak (2000). Playing for keeps. Book review of Game Theory Evolving: A Problem-Centered Introduction to Modeling Strategic Interaction, H Gintis. Science 290: 281. PDF
  169. Trapa PE, MA Nowak (2000). Nash equilibria for an evolutionary language game. J Math Biol 41: 172-188. PDF
  170. Wahl LM, B Bittner, MA Nowak (2000). Immunological transitions in response to antigenic mutation during viral infection. Int Immunol 12: 1371-1380. PDF
  171. Wahl LM, MA Nowak (2000). Adherence and drug resistance: Predictions for therapy outcome. Proc R Soc B 267: 835-843. PDF
  172. Wodarz D, R Arnaout, MA Nowak, Lifson JD (2000). Transient antiretroviral treatment during acute simian immundeficiency virus infection facilitates long-term control of the virus. Phil Trans R Soc B 355: 1021-1029. PDF
  173. Wodarz D, RM May, MA Nowak (2000). The role of antigen-independent persistence of memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Int Immunol 12: 467-477. PDF
  174. Wodarz D, MA Nowak (2000). CD8 memory, immunodominance and antigenic escape. Eur J Immunol 30: 2704-2712.<2704::AID-IMMU2704>3.0.CO;2-0 PDF
  175. Wodarz D, MA Nowak (2000). Correlates of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-mediated virus control: Implications for immuno-suppressive infections and their treatment. Phil Trans R Soc B 355: 1059-1070. PDF
  176. Wodarz D, MA Nowak (2000). HIV therapy: Managing resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97: 8193-8195. PDF
  177. Wodarz D, MA Nowak (2000). Immune responses and viral phenotype: Do replication rate and cytopathogenicity influence virus load? J Theor Med 2: 113-127. PDF
  178. Wodarz D, KM Page, RA Arnaout, AR Thomson, JD Lifson, MA Nowak (2000). A new theory of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte memory: Implications for HIV treatment. Phil Trans R Soc B 355: 329-343. PDF
  179. 2001

  180. Komarova NL, P Niyogi, MA Nowak (2001). The evolutionary dynamics of grammar acquisition. J theor Biol 209: 43-59. PDF
  181. Komarova NL, MA Nowak (2001). Natural selection of the critical period for language acquisition. Proc R Soc B 268: 1189-1196. PDF
  182. Komarova NL, MA Nowak (2001). Evolutionary dynamics of the lexical matrix. B Math Biol 63: 451-484. PDF
  183. Krakauer DC, MA Nowak (2001). Genetic redundancy. In Encyclopedia of Genetics, eds. S Brenner, J Miller. London: Academic Press, 845-846.
  184. Lifson JD, JL Rossio, M Piatak, T Parks, L Li, R Kiser, V Coalter, B Fisher, BM Flynn, VM Hirsch, RE Means, S Czajak, KA Reimann, JE Schmitz, J Ghrayeb, N Bischofsberger, MA Nowak, RC Desrosiers, D Wodarz (2001). Role of CD8+ lymphocytes in control of simian immunodeficiency virus infection and resistance to rechallenge after transient early antiretroviral treatment. J Virol 75: 10187-10199. PDF
  185. Nowak MA, NL Komarova (2001). Towards an evolutionary theory of language. Trends Cogn Sci 5: 288-295. PDF
  186. Nowak MA, NL Komarova, P Niyogi (2001). Evolution of universal grammar. Science 291: 114-118. PDF
  187. Plotkin JB, MA Nowak (2001). Major transitions in language evolution. Entropy 3: 227-246. PDF
  188. Sigmund K, C Hauert, MA Nowak (2001). Reward and punishment. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98: 10757-10762. PDF
  189. Sigmund K, MA Nowak (2001). Tides of tolerence. Nature 414: 403-405. PDF
  190. Wodarz D, SE Hall, K Usuku, M Osame, GS Ogg, AJ McMichael, MA Nowak, CRM Bangham (2001). Cytotoxic T-cell abundance and virus load in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1. Proc R Soc B 268: 1215-1221. PDF
  191. 2002

  192. Belz GT, D Wodarz, G Diaz, MA Nowak, PC Doherty (2002). Compromised influenza virus-specific CD8+-T-cell memory in CD4+-T-cell-deficient mice. J Virol 76: 12388-12393. PDF
  193. Komarova NL, C Lengauer, B Vogelstein, MA Nowak (2002). Dynamics of genetic instability in sporadic and familial colorectal cancer. Cancer Biol Ther 1: 685-692. PDF
  194. Komarova NL, MA Nowak (2002). Population dynamics of grammar acquisition. In Simulating the Evolution of Language, eds. A Cangelosi, D Parisi. London: Springer Verlag, 149-163.
  195. Michor F, MA Nowak (2002). Evolution: The good, the bad and the lonely. Nature 419: 677-679. PDF
  196. Michor F, MA Nowak (2002). Immunology tomorrow. Book review of Immunology and Evolution of Infectious Disease, SA Frank. Nature 420: 741-742. PDF
  197. Nowak MA (2002). From quasispecies to universal grammar. Z Phys Chem 216: 5-20. PDF
  198. Nowak MA, NL Komarova, P Niyogi (2002). Computational and evolutionary aspects of language. Nature 417: 611-617. PDF
  199. Nowak MA, NL Komarova, A Sengupta, PF Jallepalli, IM Shih, B Vogelstein, C Lengauer (2002). The role of chromosomal instability in tumor initiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99: 16226-16231. PDF
  200. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (2002). Biodiversity: Bacterial game dynamics. Nature 418: 138-139. PDF
  201. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (2002). Super- and coinfection: The two extremes. In Adaptive Dynamics of Infectious Diseases: In Pursuit of Virulence Management, eds. U Dieckmann, JAJ Metz, M Sabelis, K Sigmund. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 124-138. PDF
  202. Page KM, MA Nowak (2002). Empathy leads to fairness. B Math Biol 64: 1101-1116. PDF
  203. Page KM, MA Nowak (2002). Unifying evolutionary dynamics. J theor Biol 219: 93-98. PDF
  204. Plotkin JB, MA Nowak (2002). The different effects of apoptosis and DNA repair on tumorigenesis. J theor Biol 214: 453-467. PDF
  205. Sigmund K, E Fehr, MA Nowak (2002). The economics of fair play. Sci Am 286: 82-87. PDF
  206. Wodarz D, MA Nowak (2002). Mathematical models of HIV pathogenesis and treatment. Bioessays 24: 1178-1187. PDF
  207. 2003

  208. Frank SA, Y Iwasa, MA Nowak (2003). Patterns of cell division and the risk of cancer. Genetics 163: 1527-1532. PDF
  209. Frank SA, MA Nowak (2003). Developmental predisposition to cancer. Nature 422: 494. PDF
  210. Iwasa Y, F Michor, Nowak MA (2003). Evolutionary dynamics of escape from biomedical intervention. Proc R Soc B 270: 2573-2578. PDF
  211. Komarova NL, MA Nowak (2003). Language dynamics in finite populations. J theor Biol 221: 445-457. PDF
  212. Komarova NL, MA Nowak (2003). Language, learning and evolution. In Language Evolution, eds. MH Christiansen, S Kirby. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 317-337.
  213. Komarova NL, A Sengupta, MA Nowak (2003). Mutation-selection networks of cancer initiation: Tumor suppressor genes and chromosomal instability. J theor Biol 223: 433-450. PDF
  214. Michor F, SA Frank, RM May, Y Iwasa, MA Nowak (2003). Somatic selection for and against cancer. J theor Biol 225: 377-382. PDF
  215. Michor F, Y Iwasa, NL Komarova, MA Nowak (2003). Local regulation of homeostasis favors chromosomal instability. Curr Biol 13: 581-584. PDF
  216. Michor F, MA Nowak, SA Frank, Y Iwasa (2003). Stochastic elimination of cancer cells. Proc R Soc B 270: 2017-2024. PDF
  217. Mitchener G, MA Nowak (2003). Competitive exclusion and coexistence of universal grammars. B Math Biol 65: 67-93. PDF
  218. Nowak MA, F Michor, Y Iwasa (2003). The linear process of somatic evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100: 14966-14969. PDF
  219. Rajagopalan H, MA Nowak, B Vogelstein, C Lengauer (2003). The significance of unstable chromosomes in colorectal cancer. Nat Rev Cancer 3: 695-701. PDF
  220. Sasaki A, MA Nowak (2003). Mutation landscapes. J theor Biol 224: 241-247. PDF
  221. Wei X, JM Decker, S Wang, H Hui, JC Kappes, W Xiaoyun, JF Salazar, MG Salazar, JM Kilby, MS Saag, NL Komarova, MA Nowak, BH Hahn, PD Kwong, GM Shaw (2003). Antibody neutralization and escape by HIV-1. Nature 422: 307-312. PDF
  222. 2004

  223. Frank SA, MA Nowak(2004). Problems of somatic mutation and cancer. Bioessays 26 (3): 291-299. PDF
  224. Iwasa Y, F Michor, MA Nowak (2004). Evolutionary dynamics of invasion and escape. J theor Biol 226 (2): 205-214. PDF
  225. Iwasa Y, F Michor, MA Nowak (2004). Some basic properties of immune selection. J theor Biol 229 (2): 179-188. PDF.
  226. Iwasa Y, F Michor, MA Nowak (2004). Stochastic tunnels in evolutionary dynamics. Genetics 166 (3): 1571-1579. PDF
  227. Jones NA, X Wei, DR Flower, ML Wong, F Michor, MS Saag, BH Hahn, MA Nowak, GM Shaw, P Borrow (2004). Determinants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 escape from the primary CD8+ cytotoxic Y lymphocyte response. J Exp Med 200 (10): 1243-1256. PDF
  228. Matsen E, MA Nowak (2004). Win-stay, lose-shift in language learning from peers. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101 (52): 18053-18057. PDF
  229. Michor F, Y Iwasa, MA Nowak (2004). Dynamics of cancer progression. Nat Rev Cancer 4 (3): 197-205. PDF
  230. Michor F, Y Iwasa, H Rajagopalan, C Lengauer, MA Nowak (2004). Linear model of colon cancer initiation. Cell Cycle 3 (3): 358-362. PDF
  231. Mitchener WG, MA Nowak (2004). Chaos and language. Proc R Soc B 271 (1540): 701-704. PDF
  232. Nowak MA (2004). Prisoners of the dilemma. Nature 427 (6974): 491. PDF
  233. Nowak MA (2004). Theory is available light. Curr Biol 14 (11): R406-R407. PDF
  234. Nowak MA, F Michor, NL Komarova, Y Iwasa (2004). Evolutionary dynamics of tumor suppressor gene inactivation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101 (29): 10635-10638. PDF
  235. Nowak MA, A Sasaki, C Taylor, D Fudenberg (2004). Emergence of cooperation and evolutionary stability in finite populations. Nature 428 (6983): 646-650. PDF
  236. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (2004). Evolutionary dynamics of biological games. Science 303 (5659): 793-799. PDF
  237. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (2004). Population dynamics in evolutionary ecology. In Life Sciences for the 21st Century, eds. E Keinan, I Schechter, M Sela. Weinham: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.
  238. Taylor C, D Fudenberg, A Sasaki, MA Nowak (2004). Evolutionary game dynamics in finite populations. B Math Biol 66 (6): 1621-1644. PDF
  239. 2005

  240. Imhof LA, D Fudenberg, MA Nowak (2005). Evolutionary cycles of cooperation and defection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102 (31): 10797-10800. PDF
  241. Iwasa Y, F Michor, NL Komarova, MA Nowak (2005). Population genetics of tumor suppressor genes. J theor Biol 233 (1): 15-23. PDF
  242. Iwasa Y, F Michor, MA Nowak (2005). Virus evolution within patients increases pathogenicity. J theor Biol 232 (1): 17-26. PDF
  243. Lieberman E, C Hauert, MA Nowak (2005). Evolutionary dynamics on graphs. Nature 433 (7023): 312-316. PDF
  244. Michor F, TP Hughes, Y Iwasa, S Branford, NP Shah, CL Sawyers, MA Nowak (2005). Dynamics of chronic myeloid leukaemia. Nature 435 (7046): 1267-1270. PDF
  245. Michor F, Y Iwasa, C Lengauer, MA Nowak (2005). Dynamics of colorectal cancer. Semin Cancer Biol 15 (6): 484-493. PDF
  246. Michor F, Y Iwasa, B Vogelstein, C Lengauer, MA Nowak (2005). Can chromosomal instability initiate tumorigenesis? Semin Cancer Biol 15 (1): 43-45. PDF
  247. Nowak MA, NL Komarova (2005). The evolution of altruism: From game theory to human language. In Spiritual Information, ed. CL Harper Jr. Templeton Foundation Press, 308-314.
  248. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (2005). Evolution of indirect reciprocity. Nature 437 (7063): 1291-1298. PDF
  249. Traulsen A, A Sengupta, MA Nowak (2005). Stochastic evolutionary dynamics on two levels. J theor Biol 235 (3): 393-401. PDF
  250. Willensdorfer M, MA Nowak (2005). Mutation in evolutionary games can increase average fitness at equilibrium. J theor Biol 237 (4): 355-362. PDF
  251. 2006

  252. Bürger R, M Willensdorfer, MA Nowak (2006). Why are phenotypic mutation rates much higher than genotypic mutation rates? Genetics 172 (1): 197-206. PDF
  253. Dingli D, MA Nowak (2006). Cancer biology: Infectious tumour cells. Nature 443 (7107): 35-36. PDF
  254. Fudenberg D, MA Nowak, C Taylor, LA Imhof (2006). Evolutionary game dynamics in finite populations with strong selection and weak mutation. Theor Popul Biol 70 (3): 352-363. PDF
  255. Hauert C, F Michor, MA Nowak, M Doebeli (2006). Synergy and discounting of cooperation in social dilemmas. J theor Biol 239 (2): 195-202. PDF
  256. Imhof LA, MA Nowak (2006). Evolutionary game dynamics in a Wright-Fisher process. J Math Biol 52 (5): 667-681. PDF
  257. Iwasa Y, MA Nowak, F Michor (2006). Evolution of resistance during clonal expansion. Genetics 172 (4): 2557-2566. PDF
  258. Michor F, Y Iwasa, MA Nowak (2006). The age incidence of chronic myeloid leukemia can be explained by a one-mutation model. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103 (40): 14931-14934. PDF
  259. Michor F, MA Nowak, Y Iwasa (2006). Evolution of resistance to cancer therapy. Curr Pharm Design 12 (3): 261-271. PDF
  260. Michor F, MA Nowak, Y Iwasa (2006). Stochastic dynamics of metastasis formation. J theor Biol 240 (4): 521-530. PDF
  261. Nowak, MA (2006). Evolutionary Dynamics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN: 9780674023383.
  262. Nowak MA (2006). Five rules for the evolution of cooperation. Science 314 (5805): 1560-1563. PDF
  263. Nowak MA, F Michor, Y Iwasa (2006). Genetic instability and clonal expansion. J theor Biol 241 (1): 26-32. PDF
  264. Ohtsuki H, C Hauert, E Lieberman, MA Nowak (2006). A simple rule for the evolution of cooperation on graphs and social networks. Nature 441 (7092): 502-505. PDF
  265. Ohtsuki H, MA Nowak (2006). Evolutionary games on cycles. Proc R Soc B 273 (1598): 2249-2256. PDF
  266. Ohtsuki H, MA Nowak (2006). The replicator equation on graphs. J theor Biol 243 (1): 86-97. PDF
  267. Pacheco JM, A Traulsen, MA Nowak (2006). Active linking in evolutionary games. J theor Biol 243 (3): 437-443. PDF
  268. Pacheco JM, A Traulsen, MA Nowak (2006). Coevolution of strategy and structure in complex networks with dynamical linking. Phys Rev Lett 97 (25): 258103. PDF
  269. Pfeiffer T, MA Nowak (2006). Climate change: All in the game. Nature 441 (7093): 583-584. PDF
  270. Pfeiffer T, MA Nowak (2006). Digital cows grazing on digital grounds. Curr Biol 16 (22): R946-R949. PDF
  271. Taylor C, Y Iwasa, MA Nowak (2006). A symmetry of fixation times in evolutionary dynamics. J theor Biol 243 (2): 245-251. PDF
  272. Taylor C, MA Nowak (2006). Evolutionary game dynamics with non-uniform interaction rates. Theor Popul Biol 69 (3): 243-252. PDF
  273. Traulsen A, MA Nowak (2006). Evolution of cooperation by multilevel selection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103 (29): 10952-10955. PDF
  274. Traulsen A, MA Nowak, JM Pacheco (2006). Stochastic dynamics of invasion and fixation. Phys Rev E 74 (1): 011909. PDF
  275. 2007

  276. Beerenwinkel N, T Antal, D Dingli, A Traulsen, KW Kinzler, VE Velculescu, B Vogelstein, MA Nowak (2007). Genetic progression and the waiting time to cancer. PLoS Comput Biol 3 (11): e225. PDF
  277. Hauert C, A Traulsen, H Brandt, MA Nowak, K Sigmund (2007). Via freedom to coercion: The emergence of costly punishment. Science 316 (5833): 1905-1907. PDF
  278. Imhof LA, D Fudenberg, MA Nowak (2007). Tit-for-tat or win-stay, lose-shift? J theor Biol 247 (3): 574-580. PDF
  279. Iwasa Y, F Michor, MA Nowak (2007). Directional evolution of virus within a host under immune selection. In Mathematics for Life Science and Medicine, eds.Y Takeuchi, Y Iwasa, K Sato. Springer: New York.
  280. Lieberman E, JB Michel, J Jackson, T Tang, MA Nowak (2007). Quantifying the evolutionary dynamics of language. Nature 449 (7163): 713-716. PDF
  281. Nowak MA, S Roch (2007). Upstream reciprocity and the evolution of gratitude. Proc R Soc B 274 (1610): 605-609. PDF
  282. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (2007). How populations cohere: Five rules for cooperation. In Theoretical Ecology: Principles and Applications, eds. RM May, A McLean. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 7-16. PDF
  283. Ohtsuki H, P Bordalo, MA Nowak (2007). The one third law of evolutionary dynamics. J theor Biol 249 (2): 289-295. PDF
  284. Ohtsuki H, MA Nowak (2007). Direct reciprocity on graphs. J theor Biol 247 (3): 462-470. PDF
  285. Ohtsuki H, MA Nowak, JM Pacheco (2007). Breaking the symmetry between interaction and replacement in evolutionary dynamics on graphs. Phys Rev Lett 98 (10): 108106. PDF
  286. Ohtsuki H, JM Pacheco, MA Nowak (2007). Evolutionary graph theory: Breaking the symmetry between interaction and replacement. J theor Biol 246 (4): 681-694. PDF
  287. Taylor C, MA Nowak (2007). Transforming the dilemma. Evolution 61 (10): 2281-2292. PDF
  288. Traulsen A, Y Iwasa, MA Nowak (2007). The fastest evolutionary trajectory. J theor Biol 249 (3): 617-623. PDF
  289. Traulsen A, MA Nowak (2007). Chromodynamics of cooperation in finite populations. PLoS ONE 2 (3): e270. PDF
  290. Traulsen A, MA Nowak, JM Pacheco (2007). Stochastic payoff evaluation increases the temperature of selection. J theor Biol 244 (2): 349-356. PDF
  291. Traulsen A, JM Pacheco, MA Nowak (2007). Pairwise comparison and selection temperature in evolutionary game dynamics. J theor Biol 246 (3): 522-529. PDF
  292. Willensdorfer M, R Bürger, MA Nowak (2007). Phenotypic mutation rates and the abundance of abnormal proteins in yeast. PLoS Comput Biol 3 (11): e203. PDF
  293. 2008

  294. Dingli D, MA Nowak (2008). Evolutionary dynamics of cancer. Book review of Dynamics of Cancer: Incidence, Inheritance, and Evolution, SA Frank. Trends Ecol Evol 23 (5): 254-255. PDF
  295. Dreber A, MA Nowak (2008). Gambling for global goods. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105 (7): 2261-2262. PDF
  296. Dreber A, DG Rand, D Fudenberg, MA Nowak (2008). Winners don't punish. Nature 452 (7185): 348-351. PDF
  297. Fu F, C Hauert, MA Nowak, L Wang (2008). Reputation-based partner choice promotes cooperation in social networks. Phys Rev E 78 (2): 026117. PDF appears in Vir J Bio Phys Res 16 (5).
  298. Hauert C, A Traulsen, H Brandt, MA Nowak, K Sigmund (2008). Public goods with punishment and abstaining in finite and infinite populations. Biological Theory 3 (2): 114–122. PDF
  299. Jones S, W Chen, G Parmigiani, F Diehl, N Beerenwinkel, T Antal, A Traulsen, MA Nowak, C Siegel, VE Velculescu, KW Kinzler, B Vogelstein, J Willis, SD Markowitz (2008). Comparative lesion sequencing provides insights into tumor evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105 (11): 4283-4288. PDF
  300. Langer P, MA Nowak, C Hauert (2008). Spatial invasion of cooperation. J theor Biol 250 (4): 634-641. PDF
  301. Nowak MA (2008). Generosity: A winner's advice. Nature 456 (7222): 579. PDF
  302. Nowak MA, H Ohtsuki (2008). Prevolutionary dynamics and the origin of evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105 (39): 14924-14927. PDF
  303. Ohtsuki H, MA Nowak (2008). Evolutionary stability on graphs. J theor Biol 251 (4): 698-707. PDF
  304. Pacheco JM, A Traulsen, H Ohtsuki, MA Nowak (2008). Repeated games and direct reciprocity under active linking. J theor Biol 250 (4): 723-731. PDF
  305. Pinker S, MA Nowak, JJ Lee (2008). The logic of indirect speech. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105 (3): 833-838. PDF
  306. Traulsen A, N Shoresh, MA Nowak (2008). Analytical results for individual and group selection of any intensity. B Math Biol 70 (5): 1410-1424. PDF
  307. 2009

  308. Antal T, MA Nowak, A Traulsen (2009). Strategy abundance in 2x2 games for arbitrary mutation rates. J theor Biol 257 (2): 340-344. PDF
  309. Antal T, H Ohtsuki, J Wakeley, PD Taylor, MA Nowak (2009). Evolution of cooperation by phenotypic similarity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106 (21): 8597-8600. PDF
  310. Antal T, A Traulsen, H Ohtsuki, CE Tarnita, MA Nowak (2009). Mutation–selection equilibrium in games with multiple strategies. J theor Biol 258 (4): 614-622. PDF
  311. Fu F, L Wang, MA Nowak, C Hauert (2009). Evolutionary dynamics on graphs: Efficient method for weak selection. Phys Rev E 79 (4): 046707. PDF
  312. Gokhale CS, Y Iwasa, MA Nowak, A Traulsen (2009). The pace of evolution across fitness valleys. J theor Biol 259 (3): 613-620. PDF
  313. Manapat M, H Ohtsuki, R Bürger, MA Nowak (2009). Originator dynamics. J theor Biol 256 (4): 586–595. PDF
  314. Nathanson CG, CE Tarnita, MA Nowak (2009). Calculating evolutionary dynamics in structured populations. PLoS Comput Biol 5 (12): e1000615. PDF
    Nathanson CG, Tarnita CE, Nowak MA, (2010) Correction: Calculating Evolutionary Dynamics in Structured Populations. PLoS Comput Biol 6 (1):
  315. Ohtsuki H, Y Iwasa, MA Nowak (2009). Indirect reciprocity provides only a narrow margin of efficiency for costly punishment. Nature 457 (7225): 79-82. PDF
  316. Ohtsuki H, MA Nowak (2009). Prelife catalysts and replicators. Proc R Soc B 276 (1674): 3783-3790. PDF
  317. Rand DG, A Dreber, T Ellingsen, D Fudenberg, MA Nowak (2009). Positive interactions promote public cooperation. Science 325 (5945): 1272-1275. PDF
  318. Rand DG, MA Nowak (2009). Name and shame. New Scientist 204 (2734): 28–29. PDF
  319. Rand DG, H Ohtsuki, MA Nowak (2009). Direct reciprocity with costly punishment: Generous tit-for-tat prevails. J theor Biol 256 (1): 45-57. PDF
  320. Tarnita CE, T Antal, MA Nowak (2009). Mutation-selection equilibrium in games with mixed strategies. J theor Biol 261 (1): 50-57. PDF
  321. Tarnita CE, T Antal, H Ohtsuki, MA Nowak (2009). Evolutionary dynamics in set structured populations. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106 (21): 8601-8604. PDF
  322. Tarnita CE, H Ohtsuki,T Antal, F Fu, MA Nowak (2009). Strategy selection in structured populations. J theor Biol 259 (3): 570-581. PDF
  323. Taylor C, MA Nowak (2009). How to evolve cooperation. pages 41-56. In Games, Groups, and the Global Good, ed. S Levin. New York: Springer.
  324. Traulsen A, C Hauert, H Brandt De Silva, MA Nowak, K Sigmund (2009). Exploration dynamics in evolutionary games. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106 (3): 709-712. PDF
  325. Wakano JY, MA Nowak, C Hauert (2009). Spatial dynamics of ecological public goods. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106 (19): 7910-7914. PDF
  326. 2010

  327. Bozic I, T Antal, H Ohtsuki, H Carter, D Kim, S Chen, R Karchin, KW Kinzler, B Vogelstein, MA Nowak (2010). Accumulation of driver and passenger mutations during tumor progression. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107 (43): 18545–18550. PDF
  328. Fu F, MA Nowak, C Hauert (2010). Invasion and expansion of cooperators in lattice populations: Prisoner's dilemma vs. Snowdrift games. J theor Biol 266 (3): 358–366. PDF
  329. Hill AL, DG Rand, MA Nowak, NA Christakis (2010). Emotions as infectious diseases in a large social network: the SISa model. Proc R Soc B 277 (1701): 3827-3835. PDF
  330. Hill AL, DG Rand, MA Nowak, NA Christakis (2010). Infectious disease modeling of social contagion in networks. PLoS Comput Biol 6 (11): e1000968. PDF
  331. Imhof LA, MA Nowak (2010). Stochastic evolutionary dynamics of direct reciprocity. Proc R Soc B 277 (1680): 463-468. PDF
  332. Manapat ML, IA Chen, MA Nowak (2010). The basic reproductive ratio of life. J theor Biol 263 (3): 317-327. PDF
  333. Nowak MA, CE Tarnita, T Antal (2010). Evolutionary dynamics in structured populations. Phil Trans R Soc B 365 (1537): 19-30. PDF
  334. Nowak MA, CE Tarnita, EO Wilson (2010). The evolution of eusociality. Nature 466 (7310): 1057-1062. PDF
  335. Ojosnegros S, N Beerenwinkel, T Antal, MA Nowak, C Escarmis, E Domingo (2010). Competition-colonization dynamics in an RNA virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107 (5): 2108-2112. PDF
  336. Rajamani S, JK Ichida, T Antal, DA Treco, K Leu, MA Nowak, JW Szostak, IA Chen (2010). Effect of stalling after mismatches on the error catastrophe in nonenzymatic nucleic acid replication. J Am Chem Soc 132 (16): 5880–5885.  PDF
  337. Yachida S, S Jones, I Bozic, T Antal, R Leary, B Fu, M Kamiyama, RH Hruban, JR Eshleman, MA Nowak, VE Velculescu, KW Kinzler, B Vogelstein, CA Iacobuzio-Donahue (2010). Distant metastasis occurs late during the genetic evolution of pancreatic cancer. Nature 467 (7319): 1114–1117. PDF
  338. 2011

  339. Beale N, DG Rand, H Battey, K Croxson, RM May, MA Nowak (2011). Individual versus systemic risk and the Regulator's Dilemma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108 (31): 12647-12652. PDF
  340. Fu F, DI Rosenbloom, L Wang, MA Nowak (2011). Imitation dynamics of vaccination behaviour on social networks. Proc R Soc B 278 (1702): 42-49. PDF
  341. Michel JB, YK Shen, A Presser Aiden, A Veres, MK Gray, The Google Books Team, JP Pickett, D Hoiberg, D Clancy, P Norvig, J Orwant, S Pinker, MA Nowak, E Lieberman Aiden (2011). Quantitative analysis of culture using millions of digitized books. Science 331 (6014): 176-182. PDF
  342. Nowak MA, Highfield R (2011). SuperCooperators: Why We Need Each Other to Succeed. Simon & Schuster. ISBN: 9781451626636.
  343. Nowak MA, CE Tarnita, EO Wilson (2011). Nowak et al. reply. Nature 471 (7339): E9-E10. PDF
  344. Rand DG, MA Nowak (2011). The evolution of antisocial punishment in optional public goods games. Nat Commun 2: 434. PDF
  345. Tarnita CE, N Wage, MA Nowak (2011). Multiple strategies in structured populations. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108 (6): 2334-2337. PDF
  346. van Veelen M, MA Nowak (2011). Evolution: Selection for positive illusions. Nature 477 (7364): 282-283. PDF     Spektrum der Wissenschaft     German
  347. 2012

  348. Allen B, MA Nowak (2012). Evolutionary shift dynamics on a cycle. J theor Biol 311: 28-39. PDF
  349. Allen B, A Traulsen, CE Tarnita, MA Nowak (2012). How mutation affects evolutionary games on graphs. J theor Biol 299: 97-105. PDF
  350. Bozic I, B Allen, MA Nowak (2012). Dynamics of targeted cancer therapy. Trends Mol Med 18 (6): 311-316. PDF
  351. Cavaliere M, S Sedwards, CE Tarnita, MA Nowak, A Csikász-Nagy (2012). Prosperity is associated with instability in dynamical networks. J theor Biol 299: 126-138. PDF
  352. Chatterjee K, JG Reiter, MA Nowak (2012). Evolutionary dynamics of biological auctions. Theor Popul Biol 81 (1): 69-80. PDF
  353. Chatterjee K, D Zufferey, MA Nowak (2012). Evolutionary game dynamics in populations with different learners. J theor Biol 301: 161-173. PDF
  354. Chen I, MA Nowak (2012). From prelife to life: how chemical kinetics become evolutionary dynamics. Acc Chem Res 45 (12): 2088-2096. PDF
  355. Derr J, ML Manapat, S Rajamani, K Leu, R Xulvi-Brunet, I Joseph, MA Nowak, IA Chen (2012). Prebiotically plausible mechanisms increase compositional diversity of nucleic acid sequences. Nucl Acids Res 40 (10): 4711-4722. PDF
  356. Diaz LA Jr., RT Williams, J Wu, I Kinde, JR Hecht, J Berlin, B Allen, I Bozic, JG Reiter, MA Nowak, KW Kinzler, KS Oliner, B Vogelstein (2012). The molecular evolution of acquired resistance to targeted EGFR blockade in colorectal cancers. Nature 486 (7404): 537-540. PDF
  357. Fu F, MA Nowak, NA Christakis, JH Fowler (2012). The evolution of homophily. Sci Rep 2: 845. PDF
  358. Fu F, CE Tarnita, NA Christakis, L Wang, DG Rand, MA Nowak (2012). Evolution of in-group favoritism. Sci Rep 2: 460. PDF
  359. Hill AL, DIS Rosenbloom, MA Nowak (2012). Evolutionary dynamics of HIV at multiple spatial and temporal scales. J Mol Med 90 (5): 543-561. PDF
  360. Manapat ML, DG Rand, C Pawlowitsch, MA Nowak (2012). Stochastic evolutionary dynamics resolve the Traveler's Dilemma. J theor Biol 303: 119-127. PDF
  361. Nowak MA (2012). Evolving cooperation. J theor Biol 299: 1-8. PDF
  362. Nowak MA (2012). Why we help. Sci Am 307 (1): 34-39. PDF
  363. Rand DG, JD Greene, MA Nowak (2012). Spontaneous giving and calculated greed. Nature 489 (7416): 427-430. PDF
  364. Rand DG, MA Nowak (2012). Evolutionary dynamics in finite populations can explain the full range of cooperative behaviors observed in the centipede game. J theor Biol 300: 212-221. PDF
  365. Rosenbloom DIS, AL Hill, SA Rabi, RF Siliciano, MA Nowak (2012). Antiretroviral dynamics determines HIV evolution and predicts therapy outcome. Nature Medicine 18 (9): 1378-1385. PDF
  366. van Gestel J, MA Nowak, CE Tarnita (2012). The evolution of cell-to-cell communication in a sporulating bacterium. PLoS Comput Biol 8 (12): e1002818. PDF
  367. van Veelen M, J García, DG Rand, MA Nowak (2012). Direct reciprocity in structured populations. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109 (25): 9929-9934. PDF
  368. van Veelen M, MA Nowak (2012). Multi-player games on the cycle. J theor Biol 292: 116-128. PDF
  369. 2013

  370. Allen B, J Gore, MA Nowak (2013). Spatial dilemmas of diffusible public goods. eLife 2: e01169.
  371. Allen B, MA Nowak (2013). Cooperation and the fate of microbial societies. PLoS Biol 11 (4): e1001549. PDF
  372. Allen B, MA Nowak (2013). O Brave New World with Such Games. Science 341 (6148): 844-844. PDF
  373. Allen B, MA Nowak, U Dieckmann (2013). Adaptive dynamics with interaction structure. Am Nat 181 (6): E139-E163.
  374. Allen B, MA Nowak, EO Wilson (2013). Limitations of inclusive fitness. PNAS 110(50): 20135-20139. PDF
  375. Bianconi G, K Zhao, I Chen, MA Nowak (2013). Selection for replicases in protocells. PLoS Comput Biol 9 (5): e1003051. PDF
  376. Bozic I, MA Nowak (2013). Unwanted Evolution. Science 342 (6161): 938-939. PDF
  377. Bozic I, JG Reiter, B Allen, T Antal, K Chatterjee, P Shah, YS Moon, A Yaqubie, N Kelly, DT Le, EJ Lipson, PB Chapman, LA Diaz Jr., B Vogelstein, MA Nowak (2013). Evolutionary dynamics of cancer in response to targeted combination therapy. eLife 2: e00747. PDF
  378. Coakley S, MA Nowak, eds (2013). Evolution, Games, and God: The Principle of Cooperation. Harvard University Press. ISBN: 9780674047976.
  379. Fu F, MA Nowak (2013). Global migration can lead to stronger spatial selection than local migration. J Stat Phys 151 (3-4): 637-653. PDF
  380. Hilbe C, MA Nowak, K Sigmund (2013). Evolution of extortion in iterated Prisoner's Dilemma games. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110 (17): 6913–6918. PDF
  381. Hilbe C, MA Nowak, A Traulsen (2013). Adaptive dynamics of extortion and compliance. PLoS One 8 (11): e77886. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0077886 PDF
  382. Manapat ML, MA Nowak, DG Rand (2013). Information, irrationality, and the evolution of trust. J Econ Behav Organ 90 (Suppl): S57–S75. PDF
  383. Novak S, K Chatterjee, MA Nowak (2013). Density games. J theor Biol 334: 26-34. PDF
  384. Randles AP, DG Rand, C Lee, G Morrisett, J Sircar, MA Nowak, H Pfister (2013). Massively parallel model of extended memory use in evolutionary game dynamics. IPDPS: 1217-1228. PDF
  385. Rand DG, JD Greene, MA Nowak (2013). Rand et al. reply. Nature 498 (7452): E2-E3. PDF
  386. Rand DG, MA Nowak (2013). Human cooperation. Trends Cogn Sci 17 (8): 413-425. PDF
  387. Rand DG, CE Tarnita, H Ohtsuki, MA Nowak (2013). Evolution of fairness in the one-shot anonymous Ultimatum Game. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110 (7): 2581-2586. PDF
  388. Reiter JG, I Bozic, B Allen, K Chatterjee, MA Nowak (2013). The effect of one additional driver mutation on tumor progression. Evol Appl 6 (1): 34-45. PDF
  389. Reiter JG, I Bozic, K Chatterjee, MA Nowak (2013). TTP: Tool for Tumor Progression. Lect Notes Comput Sc 8044: 101-106. PDF
  390. Suchow JW, B Allen, MA Nowak, GA Alvarez (2013). Evolutionary dynamics of visual memory. J Vis 13 (9): 20.
  391. Tarnita CE, CH Taubes, MA Nowak (2013). Evolutionary construction by staying together and coming together. J theor Biol 320: 10-22. PDF
  392. Yoeli E, M Hoffman, DG Rand, MA Nowak (2013). Powering up with indirect reciprocity in a large-scale field experiment. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110 (Suppl 2): 10424-10429. PDF
  393. Zagorsky BM, JG Reiter, K Chatterjee, MA Nowak (2013). Forgiver triumphs in alternating Prisoner's Dilemma. PLoS 8 (12): e80814. DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0080814 PDF
  394. 2014

  395. Adlam B, MA Nowak (2014). Universality of fixation probabilities in randomly structured populations. Nature Scientific Reports 4: 6692. DOI: 10.1038/srep06692
  396. Allen B, MA Nowak (2014). Games on graphs. EMS Surv Math Sci 1(1): 115-151. PDF
  397. Bozic I, MA Nowak (2014)  Timing and heterogeneity of mutations associated with drug-resistance in metastatic cancers. Proc Natl Acad Sci 111 (45): 15964-15968.   doi: 10.1073/pnas.1412075111
  398. Chatterjee K, A Pavlogiannis, B Adlam, MA Nowak (2014). The time scale of evolutionary trajectories. PLoS Comput Biol 10(9): e1003818. PDF
  399. Fu F, Kocher SD, Nowak MAN.  (2014)  The risk-return trade-off between solitary and eusocial reproduction.  Ecology Letters  doi: 10.1111/ele.12392
  400. Ghang W, MA Nowak (2014). Stochastic evolution of staying together. J theor Biol 360: 129-136. PDF
  401. Hauser OP, MA Nowak, DG Rand (2014). Punishment does not promote cooperation under exploration dynamics when anti-social punishment is possible. J theor Biol 360: 163-171. PDF
  402. Hauser OP, DG Rand, A Peysakhovich, MA Nowak (2014). Cooperating with the future. Nature 511: 220-223. PDF
  403. Hauser OP, A Traulsen, MA Nowak (2014). Heterogeneity in background fitness acts as a suppressor of selection. J theor Biol 343(21):178-185. PDF
  404. Hilbe C, Wu B, Traulsen A, Nowak MA. (2014) Cooperation and control in multiplayer social dilemmas. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 111(46): 16425-16430. PDF
  405. Hill A, MA Nowak (2014). Mind over matter. Trends Ecol Evol 29(2):74-75. PDF
  406. Hill A, DLS Rosenbloom, F Fu, MA Nowak, RF Siliciano. (2014). Predicting the outcomes of treatment to eradicate the latent reservoir for HIV-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111: 37:134756-13480. dx.doi/10.1073/pnas.1406663111 PDF
  407. Humplik J, AL Hill, MA Nowak (2014). Evolutionary dynamics of infectious diseases in finite populations. J theor Biol 360: 149-162 PDF
  408. Jeong H-C, S-Y Oh, B Allen, MA Nowak (2014). Optional games on cycles and complete graphs. J theor Biol 356(7): 98-112. PDF
  409. Kocher SD, L Pellissier, C Veller, J Purcell, MA Nowak, M Chapuisat, NE Pierce (2014). Transitions in social complexity along elevational gradients reveal a combined impact of season length and development time on social evolution. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 281 (1787): PDF
  410. Markvoort AJ, S Sinai, MA Nowak (2014). Computer simulations of cellular group selection reveal mechanism for sustaining cooperation. J theor Biol 357: 123-133. PDF
  411. Olejarz JW, MA Nowak (2014). Evolution of staying together in the context of diffusible public goods. J theor Biol 360:1-12. PDF
  412. Peysakhovich A, MA Nowak, DG Rand (2014). Humans display a 'cooperative phenotype' that is domain general and temporally stable. Nature Comm PDF
  413. Rand DG, A Dreber, OS Haque, RJ Kane, MA Nowak, S Coakley (2014). Religious motivations for cooperation: an experimental investigation using explicit primes. Religion Brain Behav 4 (1):31-48. PDF
  414. Rand DG, A Peysakhovich, GT Kraft-Todd, GE Newman, O Wurzbacher, MA Nowak, JD Greene (2014). Social heuristics shape intuitive cooperation. Nature Comm 5: 1-12. PDF
  415. Szabó G, KS Bodó, B Allen, MA Nowak (2014). Fourier decomposition of payoff matrix for symmetric three-strategy games. Physical Review E 90 (4), 042811
  416. Wilson EO, MA Nowak (2014). Natural selection drives the evolution of ant life cycles. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111(35): 12585-12590. PDF

  417. 2015

  418. Ghang W, MA Nowak. (2015) Indirect reciprocity with optional interactions. J theor Biol.:365: 1-11. PDF

    In Press

  419. Allen B, C Sample, YA Dementieva, RC Medeiros, C Paoletti, MA Nowak. (preprint) The molecular clock of neutral B, evolution can be accelerated or slowed by asymmetric spatial structure. http://arXiv:1409.5459v1 [q-bio.PE] PDF
  420. Antal T, PL Krapivsky, MA Nowak (preprint). Spatial evolution of tumors with successive driver mutations.
  421. Ellingsen T, B Herrmann, MA Nowak, DG Rand, CE Tarnita (preprint). Civic capital in two cultures: The nature of cooperation in Romania and USA.
  422. Fu F, Nowak MA, Bonhoeffer S.  (in press)  Spatial heterogeneity in drug concentrations can facilitate the emergence of resistance to cancer therapy.
  423. Hilbe C, A Traulsen, B Wu, MA Nowak (preprint). Zero-determinant alliances in multiplayer social dilemmas.
  424. Leventhal G, A Hill, MA Nowak, S Bonhoeffer. (in press) Evolution and emergence of infectious diseases on theoretical and real-world networks. Nature Communications
  425. Rand DG, Nowak MA, Fowler JH, Christakis NA.  (in press) Static network structure can stabilize human cooperation Proc Natl Acad Sci.

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